French enamel is a fine miniature painting in enamel which, in its best form, may rival oil paintings. A golden or copper plate was covered with a white base and a fine grained glass solution with pigments was carefully brushed on the fired background. After the application of each color the object is fired again. This technique came into fashion in Limoges, France during the 16th century and some artists - as Jean Toutin - perfected this art during the 17th century. It was mainly applied to watch cases and miniature portraits, set in jewelry.