Turquoise is a blue, blue-green or grey-green opaque gemstone who's name is derived from the Turkish trade route along which these stones traveled to reach Europe in ancient times. It is almost always cut en cabochon, although sometimes it is seen in nugget form or even faceted. It has a waxy luster and is able to achieve a high polish. Limonite is the host rock for turquoise and it is shows occasional spots or veins of limonite patterning. The main historical sources were the Nishapur region of Persia (currently Iran) and the Sinai Peninsula. Popular since ancient times, turquoise deposits in the Sinai were already depleted by 4,000 BC. Turquoise was, and is, valued for jewelry and other adornment, including cosmetics.
|“||.... to escape evil and attain good fortune one must see the reflection of the new moon either on the face of a friend, on a copy of the Koran, or on a turquoise...||”|
Native Americans greatly valued the gem. Zuñis held it sacred, carving fetishes and talismans in the forms of animals, insects and other living shapes. Navajo legends speak of turquoise jewel baskets. The Apaches also held turquoise in high regard and Apache medicine men and shaman regarded turquoise as an absolutely essential material. Following a rainbow resulted not in a pot of gold but of turquoise and it was thought beneficial in aiding the accuracy of a hunter's aim, a power highly valued by the Apache.
Queen Victoria's love of turquoise was no secret. It is said that upon her marriage to Albert, Queen Victoria gave portrait rings to her ladies-in-waiting. Each miniature portrait of the Queen was surrounded by turquoise cabochons. Tiny turquoise cabochons were also commonly pave set in mid-Victorian jewelry covering snake motif bracelets and necklaces, brooches and the like.
The porous nature of turquoise invites dying and impregnating with waxes and polymers. Powdered turquoise is often reconstituted, along with other ingredients, and sold as gem turquoise. Dyed howlite, dyed chalcedony, glass, ceramics, plastic and many other materials have been used to simulate turquoise.
|Gemological information for turquoise|
|Color||Various shades of blue and green|
|Durability||Average to poor|
|Country of origin||Iran, Afghanistan|
|Ultrasonic cleaning||Not safe|
|Steam cleaning||Not safe|
|Warm soapy water||Safe|
|Light sensitivity||Stable unless dyed|
|Heat sensitivity||Not stable|
Campbell, Marian. Medieval Jewellery. London: V & A Publishing, 2009. P.28.
Gem Reference Guide, Los Angeles: Gemological Institute of America, 1988. Pp. 252-255.
Kunz, George Frederick. The Curious Lore of Precious Stones, New York: Bell Publishing Company, 1989. Pp. 108-114.
Newman, Harold. An Illustrated Dictionary of Jewelry, London: Thames and Hudson, Ltd., 1981. P.314.
Romero, Christie. Warman’s Jewelry, Radnor, Pennsylvania: Wallace-Homestead Book Company, 1995. P. 60.
Schumann, Walter. Gemstones of the World, New York: Sterling Publishing, Co., 1977. P.170.